Biography of Francisco Goya.

  • Birth Date : 1746-03-30
  • Death Date : 1828-04-16
  • Birth Place: Fuendetodos, Spain
  • Death Place: Bordeaux, France
  • Occupation : Painter
  • Gender : Male

Francisco Goya

He is a Spanish painter and engraver who is one of the leading figures of the Romance movement.

Tue is famous for her portraits. Painters such as Edouard Manet, Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon, who came after him, were influenced by him.

Francisco Goya was born on March 30, 1746 in the village of Fuentetodos, near Zaragoza, Spain. His full name is Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes. His father José Goya was a farmer. Francisco Goya made his first painting attempts in Zaragoza. at the age of 13, he entered the workshop of Jose Luzan in Zaragoza and studied for four years.

Later, in 1763, he began working in Madrid with the painter Francisco Bayeu, whom he would later marry to his sister. In those days, it was the custom for a distinguished painter to go to Italy. Goya also followed this tradition. For about five years he wandered around Naples, Rome and Parma. While studying the gaudy paintings from each other, he was rather interested in the technique of these works. In the meantime, he also managed to take first place in a painting competition organized in Parma in 1771. dec. Upon his return to Spain, he was now a famous and well-known painter. When he returned to Spain, he made decorations of the small choral section of the Zaragoza Cathedral. he was summoned to Madrid in 1774. She was assigned to prepare carpet samples at the Santa Barbara Kingdom Carpet Stalls.

After returning to Madrid, it seems that he was influenced by the Spanish painter Diego Velazquez, who lived a century before him, in his works. Francisco Goya was born in 1779 to King George III. He made a portrait of Carlos. in 1780, he became a painter to the king and entered the Academy of San Fernando.

in 1785, he was appointed assistant director of the painting department of the Academy. in 1788, Goya joined the ranks of the painters of King Carlos the 4th of Spain and became the chief painter of the Palace in 1799 Dec He made several portraits of the king, his fame gradually spread, and during these years he lived in existence.

In 1792, when he went on a trip to southern Spain, he contracted a serious illness while in the city of Seville, as a result of which he became completely deaf at the age of 46. She lived for a year in Andalusia next to the Duchess of Alba, to whom she was passionately attached. in 1793, he returned to Madrid, began working on the famous series of engravings Caprichos (Whims), consisting of 84 prints (1795-1798). in 1795, having left all his official duties and having recovered, he decorated the Church of San Antonio de le Flora outside the city, its dome with frescoes. He followed the French Revolution very closely, was influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau.

The group portrait of the king's family (Madrid, Prado), which he executed around the year 1800, was the culmination of his productivity in this field.

In 1808, a black era began for the history of Spain. Napoleon Bonaparte tried to conquer the country. And when the Spaniards defended their homeland with a stubborn spirit, by 1814 the whole place was covered with blood. This second blow changed Goya a lot. As a patriot (as he had written about in his painting “May 3, 1808” and many drawings), he took on an even darker character by personally observing the cruelty and suffering that French soldiers inflicted on Spanish citizens, and he put it on paper, especially with small series of drawings. For this reason, his paintings were dominated by gray, black and dark colors.

In 1815, Goya seemed to have almost isolated himself from public life, now he was painting only for his friends and himself. In 1819, in order to escape from society and all people, to live as far away from everyone and everything as possible, he made a radical change in his life: he settled in a simple, rectangular two-story house in a rural area outside Madrid with Leocadia Weiss, whom he had been with for a long time. The house has long been called by other people "Quinta del sordo", that is, “Village House of the Deaf Man”, because the owner of the house before Goya was also deaf. The fact that you started living here has never had a healing effect on Goya.

Goya began to decorate the plaster walls of the "Quinta del sordo" with the most disturbing, intense, terrifying paintings created to this day (and perhaps to this day). These works, called ”Black Paintings", are the culminations that Goya reached in his art. He did not name any of these dark works, in which black, gray and brown were mainly used, anyway, these paintings that he made on the walls of his house could not have any commercial purpose. The names of the Black Paintings were jointly considered appropriate/invented by some art historians later.

Long after his death, 19. at the end of the XIX century, the walls of the “Village House of the Deaf Man” were dismantled by the authorities and taken to the del Prado Museum in Madrid, and these paintings were transferred to canvases using a special technique with plasters.

They brought Francisco Goya before the Inquisition Court for some of his paintings. This event destroyed Goya's love for Spain. Goya realized that if he fell into the hands of the Inquisition Court a second time, he would not be able to get away with it. Widowed for twelve years, Goya left Spain in 1824 on the pretext of getting treatment and settled in France. His only surviving son Javier and his wife came to visit him in Bordeaux, France in 1828.

Francisco Goya married Josefa, the sister of the painter Francisco Bayeu, in 1774 and they had 5 children. After his wife died in 1812, he never married again.

Francisco Goya died on April 16, 1828 in Bordeaux, France at the age of 82.

He left behind about five hundred oil paintings and frescoes, about three hundred lithographs and hundreds of drawings.

A large part of the works of Francisco Goya, who is considered one of the pioneers of modern art, is exhibited in the Museo del Prado in Madrid.

Her well-known Works are: Milkmaid from Bordeaux, 1827/1828; Madrid, Prado), Carpet Samples (28 pieces, 1776-1792, Madrid, Prado), Umbrella (1777), Duchess of Alba (1796 New York; Pihanic Society), Naked Maya (1797), King IV. Carlos and Maria-Louisa on Horseback (1799), The Woman with the Fan (1807 Paris, Louvre), The Mayans on the Balcony (1810-1815, New York, Metropolitan Museum), Giant or Panic (1810-1812, Madrid, Prado), The Shooting of Rebels (May 3 Massacre). (1814), Saturn Devouring His Children (1820), The Meeting of Witches (1820-1822). Print series: Tauromaquia (Bullfight) 1815, Proverbs (1815), Disparates (Oddities) were published posthumously in 1850.